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ProMED翻訳情報(283回) ~バリ島での狂犬病対策~


Date: Sat 5 Jul 2014  Source: Animals 24-7 [edited]
日付: 2014年7月5日土曜日

The Bali Animal Welfare Association [BAWA] on [3 Jul 2014] claimed a small victory for vaccinating dogs against rabies and educating the public in Singapadu Tengah village, Gianyar regency, Bali.
 バリ動物愛護協会(BAWA)は2014年7月3日に、犬の狂犬病ワクチン接種とギャニャール県 Singapadu Tengah村の住民への教育においてささやかな勝利宣言を行った。

Responding to a [26 Jun 2014] directive from Bali governor Made Mangku Pastia, public officials “were scheduled to eliminate stray dogs in the village on [30 Jun 2014],” BAWA posted to Facebook. The extermination plan was already in effect 3 days before Pastika spoke. Community leaders were on [23 Jun 2014] sent an “Elimination Schedule for Wild Dogs” by the Technical Implementation Unit of District Livestock Office in Sukawati, BAWA said. Villagers were advised to keep their dogs confined, as any loose dogs would be killed.
 2014年1月26日、バリ知事Made Mangku Pastikaからの指示を受け、公務員により村の野良犬は2014年1月30日に撲滅される予定であった、とBAWAはフェイスブックに投稿していた。駆除計画は3日前にすでに実行されていたとPastikaは話した。2014年1月23日、Sukawatiの地域家畜事務局の技術推進部からコミュニティリーダーたちのもとに”野生犬撲滅計画”が送られていた。BAWAによると、うろついている犬は殺処分されるため、村民たちは飼い犬を繋留するよう助言されたとしている。

“BAWA worked in the banjars [villages] for days prior to the scheduled elimination to ensure village dogs were safe,” the BAWA posting recounted. When animal husbandry officers arrived on [30 Jun 2014], there were few stray dogs and the villagers were not welcoming. In response, the officers offered to vaccinate rather than eliminate any
dogs they netted.

“We give these officers credit for correctly assessing the situation and adjusting their tactics accordingly,” BAWA said. “Nevertheless, we are told that all regency animal husbandry offices have been advised that it is now okay to kill stray dogs.” Especially damaging to efforts to eradicate rabies in Bali, BAWA noted, is that “Often, eliminations are done during scheduled anti-rabies vaccination activities.” This produces resistance to cooperation with the vaccination drives. 

Reported Ni Komang Erviani of the Bali Daily on [2 Jul 2014], “The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has questioned the Bali administration’s policy to cull stray dogs.
 2014年7月2日、Bali DailyのNi Komang Ervianiは”国際連合食糧農業機構はバリの野良犬駆除行政方針を疑問視している”と述べている。

“Provincial animal husbandry agency head I Putu Sumantra told Bali Daily that he had been contacted by a FAO official from the Sri Lanka office. ‘They questioned and protested our policy of culling stray dogs,’ Sumantra said. Sumantra hesitated to give more details.
However, he said that FAO had contacted him after reading about the new policy in several media, including The Jakarta Post.”
 州の畜産部局長I Putu SumantraはスリランカのFAO事務局員から連絡を受けたとBali Dailyに話している。“彼らは我々の野良犬を駆除する政策を疑問視し、批判した、とSumantrah氏は述べ、それ以上語る事をためらった。しかしながら、新しい政策がJakarta Postを含め、いくつかの報道機関において公表されたあと、彼はFAOが接触してきたと述べている。”

Sumantra argued, said Erviani, that “The administration had been forced into making the policy after attempts to reduce rabies had stalled.” But what Pastika did was to reinstate the culling policy he 1st instituted in November 2008, when a rabies outbreak was belatedly recognized, nearly 4 months after the 1st rabid bite occurred. The outbreak was then confined to the Ungasan peninsula, where it could have been isolated and quelled by prohibiting commerce in dogs and practicing intensive ring vaccination.
流行は、犬の交易の禁止し、集中的な輪状ワクチン接種を行うことにより、隔離、沈静化することができ、Ungasan 半島のみに限局された。

Instead, the Pastika administration tacitly encouraged freelance dogcatchers who supplied dog meat restaurants on the north side of Bali to collect Ungasan dogs. Typically the dogs were transported across the island by motorcycle, then held for days or even weeks before being killed. Some escaped. Some bit people and other animals
while confined. Within another few months, rabies cases were occurring throughout Bali.

Only after BAWA was allowed to initiate high-volume dog vaccination did the numbers of cases and humane deaths begin to fall, from 82 acknowledged human deaths in 2010 to 23 in 2011, 8 in 2012, and one each in 2013 and 2014.

Sumantra told Erviani that about 50 rabid dogs had been found during the 1st 6 months of 2014, but did not acknowledge that as many had been found per month at the height of the outbreak.

Wrote Erviani, “The uncontrolled population of stray dogs is allegedly leading to the increasing number of rabid dogs. The agency predicted that the stray dog population would increase from approximately 325 000 dogs last year [2013], to around 450 000 to 500 000 stray dogs this year [2014].”

Sumantra told Erviani that the Bali government hopes to vaccinate 325 000 dogs again rabies in 2014. “But during the vaccination drive,” Sumantra claimed, “our team realized there were more than 450 000 dogs now, as many stray dogs have been breeding.”

The carrying capacity for dogs in Bali, human population about 4 million, would realistically be about 400 000 at peak. But high-volume culling means that the scavenged food formerly consumed by the dead dogs is available to puppies, ensuring that more litters are born and more puppies from each litter survive to maturity.

With culling accelerating mortality, it is quite possible that Bali — or anywhere that dogs roam freely and live mostly by foraging — could have far more puppy births per year than the actual dog population at any given time.

Meanwhile, a “rabies control” strategy that culls large numbers of dogs who have already been vaccinating and ensures continued high-volume reproduction is also a strategy that enables local politicians to keep goonda supporters on the public payroll, killing dogs, allegedly extorting bribes to spare pets, and demonstrating the grip of the parties in power.

Responsible for rabies control in Denpasar, the Bali capital city, Denpasar Veterinary Agency chief Ketut Diarmita lamented to Luh De Suriyani of the Jakarta Post, “The results of vaccination will be different on paper and in the field. On paper,” Diarmita said, “the vaccine may work effectively for about a year, but in the field, we found samples showing some dogs were only immune for 6 months.”
 バリの首都であるDenpasarにおける狂犬病制御に責任のある、Denpasar獣医局長のKetut Diarmita氏はJakarta PostのLuh De Suriyani氏に”ワクチン接種の結果は論文と現場では異なる。報告ではワクチンがほぼ1年間は効果的に効くとされているが、現場では何頭かは6か月間しか免疫されない例を見つけた”と嘆いていた。

The most common reason for anti-rabies vaccines losing potency is failure to maintain cold storage prior to use, a constant problem in hot climates where electrical grids frequently fail, but Diarmita offered a different explanation. “Dogs must receive the appropriate dosage,” Diarmita said, “but officers in the field often find it difficult to inject dogs,” who run, hide, and bite when they fear they may be killed. In consequence, Diarmita acknowledged, “many dogs were not being immunized.”

Countered BAWA, “The answer is, keep vaccinating dogs. Make it illegal to throw away litters and adult animals. Make each banjar [village] responsible for its own dogs and for ensuring every dog brought into or born in a banjar is vaccinated. Prohibit giving or selling dogs to the meat trade. Educate and vaccinate. Never eliminate.”

[Byline: Merritt Clifton] Communicated by: Merritt Clifton Animals 24-7

While this report has a measure of repetition of what has been reported earlier, it more clearly spells out the importance of involving the local community, in this case BAWA, and why stray-culling is counterproductive. And in this region, stray-culling feeds dogs into the restaurant trade, thereby facilitating the rapid spatial extension of this disease into new areas. – Mod MHJ