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ProMED翻訳情報(354回) ~イギリスにおける犬の輸入制度の実態~




Date: Fri 14 Nov 2014     Source: BBC News UK [edited]


An increasing number of dogs are being transported to the UK from eastern Europe, risking an outbreak of rabies, a charity has warned.



Undercover footage recorded by the Dogs Trust shows vets in Hungary and Lithuania creating false passports and falsifying papers. It says some puppies are not being vaccinated and others are too young. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) says abuse of the system needs to stop.

(慈善団体である)Dogs Trustが秘密裡に記録した映像では、ハンガリーとリトアニアの獣医師がパスポートや文書を偽造していることが示されている。Dogs Trustによると、中にはワクチンを接種されていない、または(ワクチン接種には)幼すぎる仔犬もいるという。The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs(DEFRA)は、その組織の濫用を止めねばならないと述べる。


The rabies vaccination for puppies does not work if they are aged under 15 weeks.



The Dogs Trust said its filming showed that the Pet Travel Scheme, which allows animals to travel between member countries – including the UK — without undergoing quarantine, “clearly isn’t working”.

その映像では、Pet Travel Scheme(ペットのパスポート制度) ―英国を含む加盟国間で、ペットを検疫にかけることなく移動することが許可される― が “明らかに機能していない”ことを示している、とDogs Trustは述べる。


DEFRA figures show there were 2,102 dogs from approved carriers entering the UK from Lithuania in 2013, nearly 9 times the number in 2011 (239). At least 3,044 dogs arrived in the UK from Hungary last year [2013], up from 399 in 2011. However, neither of these figures account for those smuggled or transported illegally.



Rabies occurs in more than 150 countries and territories; more than 55,000 people die of it every year; 40 per cent of those bitten are children aged under 15; dogs are the source of 99 per cent of human rabies deaths; more than 15 million people worldwide are treated after exposure each year. This is estimated to prevent 327,000 rabies deaths annually.



The Pet Travel Scheme changed in January 2012 and means animals from the EU and approved non-EU countries such as the US and Australia no longer need a blood test and now have to wait only 21 days following vaccination. Before January 2012, the Pet Travel Scheme required animals to be microchipped, vaccinated against rabies, and then blood tested [for rabies antibodies]. After a further 6 months, they would be allowed entry to the UK.

Pet Travel Schemeは2012年1月より、EUおよびアメリカやオーストラリアなど、承認を受けた非EU国からの動物はもはや血液検査を必要とせず、ワクチン接種後に待機期間を21日間のみとするようにした。これ以前は、Pet Travel Schemeはマイクロチップの埋め込み、抗狂犬病ワクチンの接種、および血液検査(狂犬病抗体の有無を見る)を要求していた。さらに6か月後に、動物たちは英国に入ることが許可された。


Paula Boyden, veterinary director at Dogs Trust, said: “We found that there are breeders, traders and even vets who are quite prepared to falsify documents and bring in underage puppies into the UK.” She also said she was concerned about the welfare of the puppies and the risk of them bringing rabies from the countries that they are imported from. “There was a risk assessment done before the rules of the Pet Travel Scheme changed at the beginning of 2012, which indicated that the risk of rabies coming into the country was once in 2011 years. ” However, that was relying on 100 per cent compliance, and we know clearly from our investigations that we do not have 100 per cent compliance of animals coming into the UK.”

Dogs Trustのveterinary directorであるPaula Boydenはこう述べる。”我々は、偽造証明書を全て作成する繁殖業者や貿易業者、そして獣医師までもが存在し、既定の年齢に達していない仔犬を英国へ持ち込んでいるのを発見しています”。彼女はまた、この仔犬たちの保護について、また彼らを輸出した国から狂犬病を持ち込む危険性について懸念しているという。” Pet Travel Scheme のルールが変更された2012年初頭より以前に行われたリスクアセスメントでは、狂犬病が国内に持ち込まれる危険は、かつて2011年には存在していたことが示されました。しかしながら、これは完全に(法令が)遵守されることに依存しており、われわれが行った調査から見る限り、英国に持ち込まれる動物は、100%法令を遵守したものではありません。”


The last case of rabies in dogs in the UK (outside of quarantine) was in a dog imported from Pakistan in 1970. Wound cleaning and immunisation within a few hours after contact with a suspect rabid animal can prevent the onset of rabies and death.



Nigel Gibbens, the UK’s chief veterinary officer and DEFRA’s chief spokesman, said: “We are seeing evidence of animals being fraudulently introduced under the pets passport scheme, and that needs to stop. The UK has, throughout the time we’ve been running the regime since January 2012, carried out more checks than other member states. So another of the [Pet Travel Scheme] changes is that all member states, all countries of the EU, will be required to do a proportion of checks. Rabies in the EU is a very low risk. It’s been eradicated almost throughout the EU. So those countries don’t present a big threat.”

英国のchief veterinary officerであり、DEFRA の広報局長であるNigel Gibbensはこう述べた。”我々は、ペットのパスポート制度を利用して動物が不正に持ち込まれている証拠を探しており、それは止めさせねばならない。2012年1月より、我々はその制度を運営しており、英国では他の加盟国よりも多くのチェックを行っている。[Pet Travel Scheme]のもう1つの変更点は、全ての加盟国、すなわちEU諸国がそれぞれ見合ったチェックを要求されるようになるということだ。EUでは狂犬病のリスクはとても低い。EUの中では、(狂犬病は)ほとんど根絶されている。従って、これらの国々では大きな脅威は存在しない。”


Mr Gibbens added that buying a puppy is a “very important step for people” and recommended that prospective owners buy a puppy from a place where they can see it with its mother, rather than from a source they are unsure about.


[Rabies in puppies poses specific risks, mainly due to 3 factors:



  1. Puppies are not vaccinated before the age of 3 months.
  2. Their symptoms may be atypical and confused with other early-age conditions; this may partly be caused by residual maternal antibodies.
  3. The potential exposure of children is high.





Awareness of these factors, both by the public as well as by practitioners, is essential.



As can be seen from the listed postings (“see also”), the main source of smuggled dogs to EU countries is Morocco, via Spain. In some cases, a single introduced puppy may cause exposures in several countries en-route. In April 2008, a puppy imported (legally) to the UK by a charity collecting stray dogs in Sri Lanka died of rabies in the quarantine after biting 3 persons.

投稿のリスト(”see also”以下参照)から見て取れるように、EU各国にこっそり持ち込まれるイヌの出所は主にモロッコであり、スペインを経由している。一匹で持ち込まれた仔犬が、途中経由した他の国々で曝露を起こしている場合も(狂犬病に)も散見される。2008年4月には、スリランカで野良犬を捕獲している慈善団体により英国に(法的に問題なく)輸入したイヌが、検疫期間中に3人に咬みついた後に死亡している。]