Home >News > ProMED翻訳情報(427回) ~ワイオミング州で発生したコウモリから人への狂犬病曝露事例~

ProMED翻訳情報(427回) ~ワイオミング州で発生したコウモリから人への狂犬病曝露事例~


Date: 3 Oct 2015    Source: ABC News [edited] 

The Wyoming Department of Health and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed the state’s 1st recorded case of human rabies. The Casper Star-Tribune reports () that officials announced on Friday [2 Oct 2015] that a woman from Fremont County had contracted the disease. They say she may have been exposed to the virus by a bat.

 ワイオミング州健康局及び疾病管理予防センターは州で第1番目として記録される人の狂犬病を確定した。Casper Star-Tribuneは、行政当局が2015.10.2(金)にFremont郡出身の女性がその病気(狂犬病)に罹っていたと発表したと報じた()。彼女はコウモリによってウィルスに暴露された可能性があるとのことである。

State public health veterinarian Dr Karl Musgrave says rabies is often found in animals such as bats and skunks, but human cases are rare. He says there are only one or 2 human cases in the United States each year.

 州の公衆衛生獣医師であるDr. Karl Musgraveは、狂犬病はしばしばコウモリやスカンクなどの動物にみられるが、人のケースはまれで、合衆国では毎年1,2例しかない、と述べている。

Officials have not released the woman’s health status but say rabies is a serious, deadly illness once it develops.


To prevent rabies, officials warn that people should keep a safe distance from wildlife.


 [This is very sad news for the woman, her family, friends, even for the county. Rabies is a fatal disease. Very very few people have survived the virus, and even after their recovery, it is difficult,and they may never completely return to their pre-bite condition.


In the United States, in contrast to some countries, rabies is most commonly associated with exposure to bats. Since the exposure can sometimes be just a scratch or slight bite, it is often under-appreciated by the victim, household members, physicians, and veterinarians who may have knowledge of the case. In addition, no death from rabies may have occurred locally for the previous 50 years,and it is always hard to recognize a disease that occurs so rarely.


For the past several decades, the majority of naturally acquired,indigenous human rabies cases in the United States have resulted from variants of rabies viruses. Presumably, this case will be sent for typing to learn with which strain of rabies this case was associated.


According to recent WHO documentation, “the incubation period for rabies is 5 days to 1-3 years (with an average upper range of 2 months), with symptoms appearing within 30 to 50 days following exposure. In dogs, this incubation period is shorter and generally 14 to 60 days. A key factor in determining how quickly rabies will develop is how close the virus comes to nerve endings when the bite or other exposure occurs. Incubation also depends upon the severity of the associated soft tissue damage and the amount of virus introduced,but the distance of the bite from the brain is the most significant

 WHOによる最近の情報提供によれば, “狂犬病ウィルスの潜伏期は5日間から1~3年間(平均上限2か月間)であり、暴露後30~50日間以内に症状が現れる。犬においてはこの潜伏期は短く、一般的に14~60日間である。狂犬病がどれだけ早く症状を発現するかのカギとなる要素は、咬傷もしくはその他の暴露が起こった時、神経の末端にどれだけ近接しているかによって決まる。潜伏期はまた、関係する軟部組織の損傷の重篤度と侵入したウィルスの量にも依拠するが、咬傷部位と脳からの距離が最も重要な要素である。

If the head of an animal or a person is severely bitten, symptoms may appear in as few as 14 days. Under rare circumstances, symptoms may not develop for a year or longer. The farther the bite is from nerve endings, the longer it takes to reach the nervous system and develop an infection. Therefore, post-exposure treatment with vaccines can still be effective in preventing rabies even with delays, especially if the bite was peripheral rather than central. It is also true that the bite of a rabies-infected animal does not invariably cause disease.


The disease is usually contracted from the bite of a rabid animal, but on rare occasions, contact of virus-laden saliva with broken skin may be sufficient to transmit infection. There have also been reported cases of human-to-human rabies transmission by corneal transplants,which demonstrates the importance of not using transplant tissue from anyone who died of a neurological illness of unknown cause.”


On the other hand, perhaps this is an exposed person who will be treated with PEP, but this sounds like the case has been confirmed and is not just an exposure. Further details from informed sources would be welcome.

 他方では、暴露された人はたぶんPEP(Post-exposure prophylaxis 暴露後治療)を受けるであろう。しかし、これ(PEP)は真性(狂犬病罹患動物による咬傷)のケースだけ適用されるように思われるが、暴露が確認できない場合にもこれ(PEP)はあり得る。情報源からのさらなる詳細を歓迎する。