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ProMED翻訳情報(431回) ~ノルウェーで確認されたコウモリの狂犬病~



Date: Tue 13 Oct 2015  Source: The Local (Norway) [edited]

Norwegian authorities have confirmed that a dead bat found in a cabin in central Norway was infected with rabies, the 1st recorded case on the mainland for almost 200 years.


“We have received confirmation from the Veterinary Institute that it did have a form of rabies found in bats,” Karen Johanne Baalsrud, animal health chief at Norway’s Food Standards Authority, told state broadcaster NRK. She warned the public not to look after or nurse any bats they find who appear to be unwell.

『我々は、それがコウモリでみられる狂犬病の型であると獣医研究所から確認を受け取った。』ノルウェーの食品規格機関の動物衛生課主任のKaren Johanne Baalsrud氏は国営放送NRKで語った。具合が悪いように見えるコウモリを一般市民が世話したり看病したりしないよう、彼女は警告した。

“We do not want to create fear but to provide public education,” she said. “We ask people to remember that this is a protected animal which should be left alone.”


Anyone who is bitten by a bat should immediately wash the wound with soap and water to minimise the risk of infection.


According to NRK, the bat was probably suffering from European Bat lyssavirus 2, which, according to the World Health Organisation, has never in Europe been recorded in any other mammal.


“Several countries in Europe have had this animal disease without it creating any problems,” Baalrud said. “It is likely that the disease has existed for some time in Norway without being discovered.”


Baalsrud said that there was no reason for people who have bats living in their houses or elsewhere on or near their properties to be alarmed or take any special precautions.


In 2011 and 2012, there were several outbreaks of rabies on the Arctic island of Svalbard. A woman in the archipelago’s capital of Longyearbyen required treatment after being bitten by a rabid fox.


[On 19 Jul 2015, the same website reported that “the Norwegian health authorities fear a patient at Oslo University Hospital has died from rabies, the 1st suspected case of the virus in the country for nearly 2 centuries. The patient originally comes from Asia, but has lived in Norway for several years. A blood test one month ago showed rabies antibodies, which could tell of infection or of having been vaccinated against rabies in the past. The woman’s family and any health care staff who came in contact with her have been vaccinated as a precaution”.
Have tests been applied in the patient’s tissues?


The 1st rabies-infected insectivorous bat in Europe was recorded in Hamburg, Germany in 1954. Prior to the death of a bat worker in Finland in 1985, very few bat rabies cases were reported. Over a quarter of the reported cases were identified through enhanced surveillance in the subsequent 2 years (1986 and 1987). The viruses were originally typed using sequencing, the viruses were genetically typed as European bat lyssavirus type 1 (EBLV-1) and European bat lyssavirus type 2 (EBLV-2). Between 1977 and 2011, 961 cases of bat rabies were reported to Rabies Bulletin Europe, with the vast majority (over 97 percent) being attributed to EBLV-1. There have been 25 suspected cases of EBLV-2, of which 22 were confirmed. In addition, 2 single isolations of unique lyssaviruses from European insectivorous bats were reported in southwest Russia in 2002 (West Caucasian bat virus) and in Germany in 2010 (Bokeloh bat lyssavirus).

狂犬病に感染した食虫コウモリの初発例は、1954年にドイツのハンブルクで記録されている。フィンランドでは1985年にコウモリ飼育員の死亡以前、狂犬病はほとんど報告されなかった。報告例の1/4以上がその後の2年間(1986年及び1987年)における強化された監視を通じて確認された。ウイルスは遺伝子配列を用いて初めて分類され、ウイルスはヨーロッパコウモリリッサウイルス1(EBLV-1)とヨーロッパコウモリリッサウイルス2(EBLV-2)に遺伝的に分類された。1977年から2011年の間、961症例のコウモリの狂犬病がRabies Bulletin Europeへ報告され、圧倒的多数(97%以上)がEBLV-1に起因していた。25例のEBLV-2疑い例があったが、そのうち22症例が確定された。これに加え、ヨーロッパの食虫コウモリから珍しいリッサウイルスが2例個々に分離され、2002年に南西ロシア(西コーカサスコウモリウイルス)で、2010年にドイツ(ボケロコウモリリッサウイルス)で報告された。

EBLV1 has been mainly (but not exclusively) identified in the insectivorous bat _Eptesicus serotinus_ (including Spain, France, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Russia, Netherlands, Ukraine and Slovakia).

EBLV1は主として(独占的でないが)、食虫コウモリ( Eptesicus serotinus コウライクビワコウモリ )で同定された(スペイン、フランス、ドイツ、デンマーク、ポーランド、ロシア、オランダ、ウクライナ、スロバキアを含む)。

EBLV2 has been mainly (but not exclusively) identified in the insectivorous bat _Myotis daubentonii_(including Finland, Denmark, Netherlands, Switzerland, England, Germany and Scotland).

EBLV2は主として(独占的でないが)、食虫コウモリ( Myotis daubentoniiドーバントンホオヒゲコウモリ )で同定された(フィンランド、デンマーク、オランダ、スイス、イギリス、ドイツ、スコットランドを含む)。

Official confirmation (and OIE notification) including the final identification of the virus, are anticipated.]