Home >News > ProMED翻訳情報(443回) ~ロシアで発生したねこからの狂犬病曝露による人の死亡事例~

ProMED翻訳情報(443回) ~ロシアで発生したねこからの狂犬病曝露による人の死亡事例~



Date: Fri 7 Aug 2015     Source: IA: Medikforum, [in Russian, trans. Mods.NP/JW, edited]

A 49-year-old man died from rabies in the Lipetsk region. This happened in May [2015], but laboratory data confirming the cause of death, came only yesterday [6 Aug 2015]. According to the local Department of Rospotrebnadzor [Federal Service for Consumer Protection and Human Welfare], the dangerous virus was brought into the house by
a cat.
49歳の男性がLipetsk州 で狂犬病により死亡した。これは2015年5月に起こったが、死因を確定する検査データは昨日(8月6日)ようやく入手した。地元のRospotrebnadzor課(連邦消費者保護及び人権局)によると、この危険なウイルスは猫により屋内に持ち込まれたとされる。
The cat had gone missing from home for several days. When she returned, the man decided to wash it. “In the process of washing the man was bitten by the cat,” explained Irina Shchukin, the Deputy Head of Department. Most likely, the animal was infected by a rabid fox.

その猫は数日間行方不明になり、その雌猫が戻ってきた時に男性は猫を洗おうとした。「猫を洗っている最中に男性は咬まれました」と、課長のIrina Shchukin氏は述べている。おそらく猫は狂犬病のキツネから感染したのであろう。

Delay in seeking medical aid was fatal for the man. Let us recall that this year [2015] this is already the 2nd case of the death of a resident of this region from rabies. In March [2015], a 15-year-old schoolgirl from the city of Yelets died after being bitten by a puppy, which was bought at the local animal market.

男性は医療処置を受けるのが遅れ、死亡した。確認までに、今回でこの州における住民の狂犬病による死亡は今年(2015)に入って2例目である。3月(2015)に Yelets の市内に住む15歳の女子学生が地元の動物市場で購入した子犬に咬まれた後に死亡している。

[Sporadic cases of human rabies in Russia are registered annually. In 2013, there were 6 such cases, in 2014 there were 3. Over the past few years the worst affected were the Central and southern Federal districts. Cases of rabies in humans are directly associated with epizootically unfavorable conditions with rabies in several regions of Russia, and not all of the population seeks medical care after contact with wild and domestic animals with suspicion of rabies. So, 172 cases of [animal] rabies were identified in the Lipetsk region in the 1st 7 months of this year (2015). This is almost double the number of the year before. Cases of rabies are observed in all areas in the region.
The main source of infection is the red fox (83 cases); 85 cases were identified in domestic animals (cats, dogs, cattle) and 4 in raccoon dogs  (in Russian). – Mod.NP
ロシアでは毎年、人の狂犬病症例が散発的に報告されている。2013年には6症例、2014年には3症例であった。過去数年に渡って最悪の発生を受けているのは連邦中央部及び南部である。人の狂犬病症例は、ロシアの幾つかの州において動物間で狂犬病が流行している好ましくない状況と直接関係しており、全ての住民が狂犬病感染疑いの野生動物や飼育動物と接触した後、医療処置を求めるわけでないことも関係している。Lipetsk州で、今年(2015)に入って7か月間で、172症例の動物の狂犬病が見つかっている。この症例数は前年のほぼ2倍である。狂犬病症例は州全域で観察されている。主な感染源はアカギツネ(83症例)で、85症例が飼育動物(猫、犬、牛)で、4症例がタヌキで確認されている。 (in Russian))
There has been a very successful oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programme along the border with Finland and in other areas, funded by the EU. Clearly, it needs to be applied elsewhere clearly. A report on the ORV programme in Estonia is enlightening:
Florence Cliquet et al. (2012) PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Feb; 6(2): e1535.
Eliminating rabies in Estonia

Florence Cliquetら(2012)のPLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012 Feb; 6(2): e1535.

The compulsory vaccination of pets, the recommended vaccination of farm animals in grazing areas and the extermination of stray animals did not succeed in eliminating rabies in Estonia because the virus was maintained in 2 main wildlife reservoirs, foxes and raccoon dogs. These 2 species became a priority target therefore in order to control
rabies. Supported by the European Community, successive oral vaccination (OV) campaigns were conducted twice a year using Rabigen(R) SAG2 baits, beginning in autumn 2005 in North Estonia. They were then extended to the whole territory from spring 2006. Following the vaccination campaigns, the incidence of rabies cases dramatically decreased, with 266 cases in 2005, 114 in 2006, 4 in 2007, and 3 in 2008. Since March 2008, no rabies cases have been detected in Estonia other than 3 cases reported in summer 2009 and one case in January 2011, all in areas close to the south eastern border with Russia.


The bait uptake was satisfactory, with tetracycline positivity rates ranging from 85 percent to 93 percent in foxes and from 82 percent to 88 percent in raccoon dogs. Immunisation rates evaluated by ELISA ranged from 34 percent to 55 percent in foxes and from 38 percent to 55 percent in raccoon dogs. The rabies situation in Estonia was compared to that of the other 2 Baltic States, Latvia and Lithuania.
Despite regular OV campaigns conducted throughout their territory since 2006, and an improvement in the epidemiological situation, rabies has still not been eradicated in these countries. An analysis of the number of baits distributed and the funding allocated by the European Commission showed that the strategy for rabies control is more cost-effective in Estonia than in Latvia and Lithuania.



ペットへの強制的なワクチン接種、牧草地帯における家畜へのワクチン接種の推奨、また放浪動物を排除することは、エストニアにおける狂犬病を撲滅に功を奏さなかった。理由としては、2種の主要な病原体保有野生動物であるキツネとタヌキが狂犬病ウイルスを維持していることが挙げられる。したがって、狂犬病制御のためにはこの2種類の動物が優先的標的となる。欧州共同体の支援により、2005年の秋からエストニア北部で、Rabigen (R) SAG2を使った経口ワクチン(OV)キャンペーンが連続的に年に2回行われた。その後彼らは2006年春からエストニア全域へと拡大した。ワクチンキャンペーン以降、2005年には266症例、2006年には114症例、2007年には4症例、2008年には3症例と、狂犬病症例は著しく減少した。2008年3月以降、2009年夏の3症例と2011年1月の1症例を除いて狂犬病は見つかっておらず、それら全ての症例はロシアとの南東部国境に近い地域で発生した。


Note that the compulsory vaccination of pets and livestock was unsuccessful in eliminating rabies because of its reservoir in wild foxes and raccoon dogs.




The RV-97 rabies virus vaccine strain is widely used in Russia as a component of the live attenuated oral anti-rabies vaccine “Sinrab”. This vaccine has also been used in some other countries, such as Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine. Entire genome sequencing is an effective tool for studying the genetic properties of virus strains.
In this study, a simple technique for obtaining the entire genome sequence of the rabies virus was used. The entire genome sequence and the deduced amino acid sequences of the major viral proteins were compared with those of other rabies vaccine virus strains. The RV-97 strain forms a separate phylogenetic branch and seems to be phylogenetically more related to the group of Japanese vaccine strains. It also contains several unique amino acid changes in known immunodominant sites of G and P proteins.