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ProMed情報 〜リッサウイルスにより死亡した馬への対応〜


オーストラリアコウモリリッサウイルス-オーストラリア(04)ウマ 死亡数
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Fri 17 May 2013
Source: Warwick Daily News [edited]

Two horses have been euthanased in the Southern Downs after testing
positive to Australian bat lyssavirus [ABLV] in what is believed to be
a world 1st. APN [Asia-Pacific network] understands that the virus is
most likely to have come from microbats in the area. Biosecurity
Queensland is putting the property in quarantine. One horse was
believed to be euthanized on 11 May 2013 after falling ill, and a 2nd
horse was also put down after showing similar symptoms 5 days earlier.
There is believed to be 20 other horses on the property who are
potentially infected with the deadly virus. The site will remain under
quarantine while further testing is conducted on the remaining
Southern Downs において2頭のウマが、世界で初めてと思われるが、オーストラリアコウモリリッサウイルス[ABLV]の検査結果陽性のために安楽死された。APN [Asia-Pacific network]は、そのウイルスがその地域におけるココウモリ(microbats)由来であることを最も疑われると理解している。クーンズランドのバイオセキュリティは、その農場を検疫管理下においている。一頭のウマは、病気になった後2013年5月11日に安楽死されたものと思われ、2頭目も同様の症状を発現した後5日早く安楽死された。その農場においてその致死的ウイルスに感染していると考えられる他の20頭のウマがいると思われる。その農場では、残っているウマにさらなる検査が行われる期間、検疫管理下に置かれるであろう。

Staff from the Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service Public Health
Unit will visit this property to assess the situation and identify any
human potentially exposed to this horse. The public health staff will
interview all people identified as having been in contact with the
horse to determine whether any post-exposure treatment is required.
Darling Downs病院及び公衆衛生部門のスタッフがこのウマに曝露した可能性のあるすべての人の確認と状況を調査するためにこの農場を訪問した。公衆衛生スタッフは、曝露後免疫処置が必要であるかどうかの判断のためにこのウマと接触したと確認したすべての人に対して聞き取り調査を行うであろう。

Chief Health Officer Dr Jeannette Young said it is important to
remember that human cases of ABLV are incredibly rare. “There have
only been 3 recorded cases in Australia, all in Queensland, and sadly,
all 3 people passed away,” Dr Young said. “All 3 cases were the result
of direct exposure to bats [harbouring] ABLV. There are no documented
cases of transmission of ABLV or rabies from horses to humans.
However, the theoretical possibility does exist. We do, however, have
a preventative treatment that is effective in any person not
displaying symptoms of the virus. Warwick and Toowoomba Hospitals will
provide a free course of this preventative treatment [i.e. post rabies
prophylaxis] to anyone who public health staff determine was in close
contact with this dead horse resulting in a risk of exposure to the
virus. Simply patting a horse would not constitute exposure.”
衛生部門吏員のチーフであるJeannette Young博士は、ABLVの人症例は非常にレアケースであることを思い起こすことは重要であると話している。オーストラリアにおいて、そのすべてがクーンズランドであるが、たった3例の記録しかなく、悲しいが3人とも死亡した。3例すべてがABLVを保有したコウモリからの直接曝露の結果である。ウマから人へABLVあるいは狂犬病が伝播した症例報告はない。しかし、理論的な可能性は存在する。私達にはこのウイルスによる症状を発現していないどのような人にでも有効な予防方法がある。Warwick and Toowoomba病院では、公衆衛生職員がウイルスの曝露により死亡したウマと緊密な接触があったと判断された誰にも無料の予防処置[すなわち、狂犬病曝露後予防]を提供している。

People who have had a potential exposure to ABLV require an injection
of rabies immunoglobulin and a series of 4 rabies vaccine injections
[i.e. standard post rabies exposure prophylaxis]. Any Darling Downs
local who believes they have been in direct contact with or in close
proximity to this horse can also contact 13 HEALTH (13 43 25 84) for
advice. Staff at 13 HEALTH will help determine whether any further
action, including testing or treatment, is required.
ABLVに曝露された可能性のある人は、狂犬病イムノグロブリンの注射及び一連の4回のワクチン接種が必要である[すなわち、標準の狂犬病曝露後予防処置]。このウマと直接または緊密に接触したと思われるDarling Downsの住民は誰もが13 HEALTH (13 43 25 84)へ診察のために連絡をとることができる。13 HEALTH の職員は検査や治療処置を含むさらなる対応が必要かの判断をしてくれるだろう。

ABLV is carried by bats and flying foxes. The horse had 1st been
tested for Hendra virus infection, Biosecurity Queensland chief
biosecurity officer Dr Jim Thompson said. The horse had tested
negative for Hendra virus infection, but further testing returned a
positive result for ABLV. “Another horse showing similar symptoms was
euthanized at the same property 5 days earlier. There are 20 other
horses on the property. The vet involved in both cases received
post-exposure prophylaxis and took appropriate precautions. The site
will remain under quarantine while further testing is conducted on the
remaining horses. ABLV is carried by bats and flying foxes, he said.”
ABLVはコウモリ及びオオコウモリが保有している。そのウマは、まず第一にヘンドラウイルス感染について検査された、とクイーンズランドのバイオセキュリティ部門チーフ職員のJim Thompson博士は話した。そのウマは、ヘンドラウイルス陰性であったが、さらなる検査においてABLVに陽性結果となった。同様の症状を発現したもう1頭のウマは同じ農場で5日前に安楽死された。その農場には他に20頭のウマがいた。二つの症例に係わった獣医師は、曝露後予防及び適切な予防処置を受けた。その農場では、残っているウマにさらなる検査が行われる間、検疫管理下に置かれるであろう。ABLVは、コウモリ及びオオコウモリが保有している、と彼は話した。

In 1996, a new virus was discovered in Australian bats — identified
as a lyssavirus; the new virus is a close relative to the common
rabies virus found overseas. In May 1996, a black flying fox showing
nervous signs was found near Ballina, NSW. Samples were sent to
Yeerongpilly Veterinary Laboratory in Queensland as part of a
surveillance program for the Hendra virus. A fixed-tissue brain sample
was also sent to CSIRO’s Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) in
Geelong. The Hendra virus tests were negative, but the sample tested
positive for rabies. Isolation and gene sequencing showed that it was
a lyssavirus and is closely related to common rabies. In November
1996, a Queensland woman who had recently become a bat handler became
ill. She initially suffered numbness and weakness in her arm which
progressed to coma and death. Samples sent to AAHL during this woman’s
illness confirmed that she had been infected with lyssavirus. In
December 1998, a woman from Mackay in North Queensland was also
diagnosed with the disease and later died. She had been bitten by a
bat more than 2 years earlier, before the infection was 1st identified
in humans and before information about vaccination and bat handling
precautions were circulated.
1996年、オーストラリアのコウモリに新しいウイルスが発見された。–リッサウイルスとして確認;その新しいウイルスは、海外で見られる通常の狂犬病ウイルスに近縁である。1996年5月、ニューサウスウェールズ (NSW)のBallinaの近くで神経症状を示しているクロオオコウモリが発見された。検体がヘンドラウイルスのサーベイランス計画の一翼を担うクイーンズランドのYeerongpilly獣医学研究所へ送られた。固定された脳検体は、Geelong のCSIRO’sオーストラリア動物衛生研究所(AAHL)へも送られた。ヘンドラウイルスの検査では陰性であった。しかし、その検体は狂犬病に陽性であった。ウイルス分離と遺伝子塩基配列検査ではリッサウイルスであり通常の狂犬病ウイルスと近縁であることが示された。1996年12月にクーンズランドで最近コウモリ飼育者になった女性が病的状態になった。彼女は当初腕の麻痺と脱力を患っていたが、昏睡状態になり死亡した。発病中にAAHLに送られ検体から、この婦人がリッサウイルスに感染していることが確認された。1998年12月、北クイーンズランドのMackay出身の女性もまたその病気と診断され、後に死亡した。彼女は、2年以上も前、最初のヒトでの確認及びワクチンについての情報やコウモリ飼育への注意が流布される前にコウモリに咬まれていた。

ABLV has been isolated, or infection demonstrated, in both
insectivorous and fruit bats (flying foxes) from New South Wales,
Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria and Western Australia.
Nonetheless, Australia’s rabies-free status has not changed as a
result of the Australian bat lyssavirus discovery.

Australian health authorities suggest lyssavirus poses a low public
health risk. However, they strongly recommend that anyone scratched or
bitten by a bat should immediately wash the affected area with soap
and water and contact their local doctor. Research at the US Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention shows the vaccine for classical
[canine] rabies can protect against ABLV. A pre-exposure course of
rabies vaccine should be taken by high-risk category people such as:
bat carers, veterinarians and wildlife officers. There is also a
post-exposure treatment course for people bitten or scratched by a bat
which is suspected of being infected.

The Commonwealth Department of Health advises that the risk of
infection for pets bitten or exposed to a bat is very low. The
Department of Health and Ageing also advises that the risk of
transmission of ABLV from a dog or cat to a person is very low,
although there is theoretical risk of transmission. If your pet has
contact with a bat, obtain advice from your state agriculture or
health department, or read the information on bat lyssavirus at the
links shown to the right under Related Areas.
[Byline: Doug Beckers]

Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts


[This is the 1st report infection of horses by ABLV, presumably as
result of exposure to ABLV-infected bats. No information is available
regarding the extent of exposure of these horses to bats or the mode
of transmission of the virus to horses. It is clear that in Australia,
efforts must be increased to reduce the exposure of equines to bats,
which in Eastern Australia harbour the highly lethal ABLV and Hendra
virus. It is not clear why microbats have been have been picked out as
the vectors of the infection in this incident.


The virus _Australian bat lyssavirus_, 1st isolated in 1996, is a
rhabdovirus, which is classified now as a species of the genus
_Lyssavirus_. It is closely related to rabies virus (the type species
of the genus) and has been responsible for fatal rabies-like disease
in at least 2 people who had contact with large Australian bats of the
flying fox type. ABLV has now been associated with the deaths of 2
horses, but the identity of the bats responsible and the route of
infection have yet to be determined. ABLV appears to be distributed
along the east coast of Australia and has been isolated directly from
3 of the 4 species of flying foxes. Post-exposure treatment with
standard rabies virus vaccine and rabies immune globulin is believed
to be protective and should be obligatory following any close contact
with any type of Australian bat exhibiting abnormal behaviour. –
A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:

[see also:
Australian bat lyssavirus – Australia (03): (QL) comment
Australian bat lyssavirus – Australia (02): (QL) human fatality
Australian bat lyssavirus – Australia: (QL) 3rd victim
Australian bat lyssavirus – Australia (02): (VI) flying fox
Australian bat lyssavirus – Australia: (VI) flying fox 20110526.1601
Australian bat lyssavirus – Australia: (QL) flying fox, human exp.,
corr. 20100107.0074
Australian bat lyssavirus – Australia: (QL) flying fox, human exp
Australian bat lyssavirus, human, susp. – Australia (NSW)
Australian bat lyssavirus, flying fox – Australia (QLD) 20041111.3050]