Home >News > ProMED翻訳情報(203回) ~台湾での狂犬病再興・OIE報告及び経口ワクチン予備実験(8月24日・29日)~

ProMED翻訳情報(203回) ~台湾での狂犬病再興・OIE報告及び経口ワクチン予備実験(8月24日・29日)~



In this posting:
[1] OIE follow-up OIE追跡調査
[2] Oral vaccination, early preliminary trials 経口ワクチン、予備実験

[1] OIE follow-up
Date: Thu 29 Aug 2013
Source: OIE WAHID Disease Information, reports archive, ref OIE 13994
[summ., edited]

1. Follow-up report no 22, submitted 29 Aug 2013

  1. 追跡調査 no 22, 2013/08/29投稿
    Epidemiological comments: The Animal Health Research Institute
    (National Laboratory) has confirmed rabies virus infection in 2 wild
    ferret-badgers which were found in Nantou County, by direct
    fluorescent antibody tests. From August 2012 to 25 Aug 2013, the
    number of dogs and cats vaccinated against rabies is 386 923 in total
    and consists of 70 396 in Taichung City, 67 095 in Tainan City, 13 326
    in Hualien County, 34 496 in Nantou County, 12 521 in Pingtung County,
    115 318 in Kaohsiung City, 19 700 in Yunlin County, 28 557 in Chiayi
    County, and 25 514 in Taitung County. Intensified vaccination
    activities targeted at dogs and cats still continue on the areas where
    infected ferret-badgers were found. The monitoring is ongoing.

2. Outbreak summary [as of 29 Aug 2013]

Total outbreaks: 107 (submitted)

<Species / Susceptible / Cases / Deaths / Destroyed / Slaughtered>

1. Chinese ferret-badger / – / 106 / 105 / 1 / 0

中国イタチアナグマ  /-/ 106/ 105/ 1/ 0
2. Asian House Shrew / – / 1 / 1 / 0 / 0
アジアイエトガリネズミ/ -/ 1/ 1/ 0/ 0
[A map showing the location of the 107 outbreaks is included in the
report. – Mod.AS]

Communicated by:

[The summary report above includes details of the 107 outbreaks of
this unusual rabies epizootic in Taiwan.
The 1st 3 ferret-badgers to be found, by RT-PCR, as suspected rabies
cases by the National Taiwan University in June 2013 (subsequently
confirmed by the national laboratory), had been found dead on 23 May
2012 (Nantou county), 25 Nov 2012 (Yunlin county), and 29 Dec 2012
(Nantou county). Since the initial diagnosis, surveillance has been
widely implemented, discovering, so far, 102 additional
rabies-positive dead wild ferret-badgers and one dead Asian mouse
shrew, spread over the entire southern part of Taiwan (see map). In
addition, one (clinically affected?) wild ferret-badger was destroyed
(follow-up report No 4, Taitung City, T’ai-Tung, 28 Jul 2013).
狂犬病症例疑いとして2013年6月に国立台湾大学においてRT-PCRによって発見された(その後国立研究所により確認)、初発症例の3頭のイタチアナグマは、2012年5月23日(南投県)2012年11月25日(雲林県)及び2012年12月29日(南投県)で死体で発見されていた。最初の診断以来、サーベイランスが広範囲に行われている。そしてこれまで、さらに台湾南部全域にわたって(地図参照)狂犬病陽性の102頭の死んだ野生のイタチアナグマと1頭の死んだアジアイエトガリネズミを発見している。さらに、1頭(臨床的に感染していたとされる?)の野生のイタチアナグマが殺処分された(追跡調査 No.4、台東市、台東県、2013年7月28日)。
There is no information, so far, on any suspected cases in other
animal species in Taiwan. – Mod.AS
Maps of Taiwan can be seen at
and <http://healthmap.org/r/8b8a>. – Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[2] Oral vaccination, early preliminary trials

Date: Sat 24 Aug 2013

Source: Taipei Times [edited]

After visiting rabies-affected areas and laboratories in Taiwan,
specialists from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC) yesterday [23 Aug 2013] praised the Taiwanese government’s
“swift and comprehensive” response to the re-emergence of rabies in
the country and reported the preliminary results of their oral
vaccination study on ferret-badgers.
The specialist team arrived in Taiwan earlier this month [August 2013]
to assist health authorities on prevention measures and have been
working with the Taiwanese CDC and the Council of Agriculture to
identify clear strategies for rabies control.
Ryan Wallace, one of the 3 specialists, said “surveillance systems to
detect rabid animals have been in operation since the 1st reported
rabies case [and] the laboratory response to diagnose the disease,
which was previously not recognized in this country, has been equally

3名の専門家の内の一人であるRyan Wallaceは、『狂犬病動物を検出するためのサーベイランスシステムは、最初の狂犬病症例が報告された時から実施されており、(また)研究所における、過去にこの国において認められなかったその病気を診断するための対応についても関心するものがあった。』と述べた。
“The full extent of the rabies reservoir in Taiwan is not yet
understood in its entirety. Further testing of rabies-suspect animals
and focused studies must be conducted before we could understand the
extent of the disease spread. For this reason, all counties and cities
in Taiwan should be considered potentially to have rabies in their
wildlife populations,” he said.
Oral rabies vaccination requires years of planning, preparation, and
studies, Wallace said, before questions of what type of vaccine to
use, what type of bait to use, and how to target reservoir animals can
be adequately determined.
In the study, the specialists used 3 baits that are available in the
US and 3 ferret-badgers that were in captivity were offered the bait.
The goal of the study, in which only placebos, not actual vaccines,
were used, is to see if the coating on the bait would attract
ferret-badgers, and if it did attract them, how the bait would be
handled: actually ingested or simply chewed by the ferret-badgers.
“The ferret-badgers, unfortunately, did not seem very interested in
any of these baits,” Wallace said.
Some placebo baits were also placed with cameras in settings where
ferret-badgers have existed, but no video of ferret-badgers
approaching the baits was obtained.
“The small preliminary study probably indicates that the baits we have
are probably not ideal for an animal the size of a ferret-badger, and
they may not be very good at attracting ferret-badgers to eat them,
which is required for vaccination,” he said.
“In the US, we are currently using 2 types of vaccine for oral rabies
vaccination in wildlife, and both of those should be evaluated as
options for Taiwan if you decide to go the route of oral vaccination,
but it’s a long process,” he said.
Asked about the need for an animal experiment, Wallace said animal
model experiments play an important role in describing pathogenesis
and vaccine efficacy when a new virus or disease is found.
[Byline: Alison Hsiao]

Communicated by:

[In order to get orally vaccinated, the bait must be attractive for
the target animal and it must be thoroughly chewed in order to
guarantee that the sachet is punctured so that the vaccine is released
into the mouth of the consumer, exposing its oropharyngeal mucosa. The
investigators will have to determine the bait flavor preferences of
the target animals as well as their feeding behavior and physiology.
This will require a coordinated, multi-disciplinary, probably extended
research effort.
How and when was the virus introduced, as well as why infection is
limited to a single, wild species population, are other issues to be
addressed. – Mod.AS