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ProMED翻訳情報(251回) ~ナイジェリアの食用犬処理に係る狂犬病の危機に関する意見~


Date: 5 Mar 2014 From: Martin Hugh-Jones, ProMED-mail Animal Disease Assistant Moderator

Two subscribers questioned my suggestion that maybe some 10-25 percent of the Nigerian butchers of stray dogs with inapparent rabies might have antibodies.

The study quoted stated: “A study conducted in southeastern Nigeria, whose native population consumes dog meat as part of the traditional diet, detected the rabies virus in the saliva and brain tissue of 5 percent of slaughtered dogs. Researchers also confirmed that butchers take few precautions around symptom-free dogs prior to slaughter,using their bare hands to muzzle animals without using adequate protection against bites, potentially placing butchers at high risk for contracting rabies.”

The paper quoted no rabies cases among the dog butchers, thus my speculative hypothesis that some may have developed immunity without the benefit of vaccination.

Though it is believed that rabies has a 100 percent mortality rate, to quote the song, “it ain’t necessarily so.” See the following:

[1] Rabies in Caribbean mongoose, taken from “The biology of the mongoose in the Caribbean,” by David Nellis & C Everard, Foundation for Scientific Research in Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles,Utrecht, 1983, pp 134-135: briefly, they reported a fluxuating level of the disease in trapped mongoose, from 3.7 percent in 1968, to 0.5 percent in 1970, to 3.5 percent in 1971, with a gradual decline to 0.14 percent in 1977. Rabies SN antibodies at a titre over 1:5 were found in 498 of 1675 (29.7 percent) mongoose tested between 1971 and 1974. The lowest percent antibody protected, 9 percent or 3/33, were in northern Grenada and 54.5 percent (30/55) on the central west coast. Of 127 mongooses 7.1 percent had titres over 1:1000, and the highest titre was 1:5900.
[1] 西インド諸島マングースの狂犬病は、David Nellis & C Everardによる、「西インド諸島のマングースの生物学」、スリナムとオランダ領アンテイルにおける科学研究基金、ユトリヒト、1983, pp 134-135から引用した。
要約すると、彼らは捕獲されたマングースの狂犬病の保有変動を報告した。それによると、1968年の3.7%から、1970年で0.5%、1971年で3.5%、1977年で0.14%と徐々に減少した。1971年から1974年に検査されたマングース1675匹中の498匹(29.7%)で5倍以上の狂犬病の血清中和(SN)抗体力価が見つかった。防御抗体の最低の比率は、北部グレナダで9%または3/33、そして西海岸中央で54.5%(30/55) であった。127匹のマングースの7.1%は1,000倍以上の抗体価を持ち、最も高い抗体価は5,900倍であった。

[2] O’Shea TJ, Bowen RA, Stanley TR, Shankar V, Rupprecht CE.Variability in Seroprevalence of Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies and Associated Factors in a Colorado Population of Big Brown Bats(_Eptesicus fuscus_). PLoS One. 2014 Jan 22;9(1):e86261.
[2] O’Shea TJ, Bowen RA, Stanley TR, Shankar V, Rupprecht CE.
オオクビワコウモリ[Big Brown Bats(_Eptesicus fuscus_)]のコロラド個体群における狂犬病ウイルス中和抗体の血清保有率の変動と関連要因 PLoS One. 2014 Jan 22;9(1):e86261.

[3] Gilbert AT, Petersen BW, Recuenco S, Niezgoda M, Gomez J,Laguna-Torres VA, Rupprecht C. Evidence of rabies virus exposure among humans in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Aug;87(2):206-15. [In the Amazon basin, rabies exposure is usually from vampire bats feeding on the sleeping individual].

[3] Gilbert AT, Petersen BW, Recuenco S, Niezgoda M, Gomez J,Laguna-Torres VA, Rupprecht C.
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012 Aug;87(2):206-15. [アマゾン流域において、狂犬病は一般的に睡眠中のヒトを餌にする吸血コウモリによって曝露される].

My thanks to Charles Rupprecht for the latter references. – Mod.MHJ

最後の参考論文に対してCharles Rupprechtに感謝します。